You review what the PA has told you about bartonellosis with your sister. She tells you that one statement made by the PA is incorrect. Identify that statement.
A) It is a common cause of chronic lymph node enlargement in children.
B) It can cause serious illness in immunocompromised people such as those with AIDS.
C) It can affect the brain or heart valves in a small number of cases.
D) Cat scratches are the only mode of transmission to humans.
E) Bartonellosis does not spread from person to person.
The PA goes on to explain that cat bite infections and bartonellosis (cat scratch disease) differ in that
A) P. multicoda is a Gram-positive organism while B. henselae is a Gram-negative organism.
B) P. multicoda is transmitted by cat bites, while B. henselae may be transmitted by bites or scratches.
C) P. multicoda may be transmitted form person-to-person while B. henselae can only be transmitted by cat bites.
D) the virulence factors of P. multicoda are as yet unknown while B. henselae has an antiphagocytic capsule.
E) cat bite infections can be prevented with prophylactic antibiotics while bartonellosis may be prevented with an attenuated vaccine.
The PA tells you that a disease called cat scratch disease can also be contracted through a cat bite. The organism that causes this disease is ________, and that the disease is characterized by ________.
A) Bartonella henselae; peliosis hepatis
B) Pasteurella multocida; local lymph node enlargement
C) Bartonella henselae; local lymph node enlargement
D) Pasteurella multocida; rash and joint pain
E) Streptobacillus moniliformis; vomiting, diarrhea and rash
You go to the urgent care in your neighborhood. There, a physician’s assistant (PA) tells you that wounds caused by animal bites (especially cats) can be infected with
A) Pasteurella multocida AND Streptobacillus moniliformis.
B) Staphylococcus aureus AND Streptobacillus moniliformis.
C) Streptococcus epidermidis AND Streptobacillus moniliformis.
D) Pasteurella multocida OR Bartonella henselae.
E) Bartonella henselae OR Streptobacillus moniliformis.
It is possible to cultivate Clostridium tetani from a wound, even if the affected person does not have tetanus. How can this be explained?
A) If Clostridium tetani is cultured from a wound, the person MUST have tetanus. However, in some people the signs and symptoms of tetanus are extremely mild, so it can be difficult to detect the disease in them.
B) Clostridium tetani may be growing vigorously in the wound. However, the organism only produces tetanospasmin if the person’s immune system is compromised, so a healthy person may not develop the disease.
C) The wound may contain spores that can be germinated under appropriate conditions in culture. However, they will not germinate in a wound unless it is anaerobic. Since the spores themselves do not produce toxin, their presence does not lead to tetanus.
D) Clostridium tetani is part of the normal microbiota of the integumentary, cardiovascular, and lymphatic systems. It makes sense that it would be possible to culture the organism from a wound, even in a healthy person.
E) None of these adequately explains how C. tetani can be cultured from the wound of a healthy person.
Choose the one False statement about Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
A) It is widespread in nature, commonly found in plants.
B) Some strains can grow in nutrient-poor environments, including distilled water.
C) It secretes pigments that together produce a green color.
D) Under certain circumstances, it can grow anaerobically.
E) It is a Gram-positive, spore-forming encapsulated rod.
Why is Staphylococcus epidermidis able to colonize plastic materials used in medical procedures?
A) It has fimbriae that allow it to attach to plastic surfaces.
B) It can bind to fibronectin, a blood protein that coats plastic implants.
C) It produces coagulase that allows it to colonize inert surfaces such as titanium.
D) It can produce a glycocalyx that allows it to form biofilms.
E) These are all factors that allow S. epidermidis to colonize implants.
How is it possible for anaerobes to be involved in bite wound infections?
A) Most bite wounds are on hands or fingers, which have little tissue and few blood vessels, and are thus fairly anaerobic.
B) Facultative anaerobes in bite wounds reduce available oxygen in the affected tissue, creating anaerobic conditions.
C) Bite wounds result in the release of anaerobinases by keratinocytes; these convert oxygen to nitrogen, generating anaerobic conditions.
D) Although anaerobes are introduced into a wound through biting, they do not multiply in the aerobic tissue and do not contribute to a bite wound infection.
E) In fact, anaerobes are never involved in bite wound infections; tissues are always well oxygenated, which inhibits any anaerobes from multiplying in them.
Bite wounds are often serious as they may lead to an infection in which two or more species of pathogens act together to produce an effect greater than the sum of effects if each pathogen were acting alone. This is referred to as a(n) ________ infection.
Choose one False statement about the treatment of clostridial myonecrosis.
A) Placing a person with gangrene in a hyperbaric chamber always eliminates the need for debridement and/or amputation.
B) High doses of antibiotics, often a combination of penicillin and clindamycin, are given to help stop bacterial growth and toxin production.
C) Prompt debridement of all dead and infected tissues is essential; in some cases amputation is also necessary.
D) Antibiotic treatment of clostridial myonecrosis is challenging because antibiotics do not diffuse well into necrotic tissue.
E) Antibiotic treatment of clostridial myonecrosis stops bacterial growth but has no impact on any toxin already produced by the causative agent.