1. Compare and contrast channel proteins and the classes of carrier proteins (e. g., uniporter, symporter, and antiporter) including the

1. Compare and contrast channel proteins and the classes of carrier proteins (e. g., uniporter, symporter, and antiporter) including the relative direction of molecule movement and any associated energetic needs. Which protein class would nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) be associated with?

2. In cardiac muscle, acetylcholine binds to muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs), which are G-protein coupled receptors, which elicit a signal transduction pathway that induces cardiac muscle to relax. Outline how G-protein coupled receptors induce signal transduction pathways including relevant secondary messengers.
3. Interpret Dr. Peterson’s statement that active transport is essential for facilitated diffusion of Na+ ions to occur in muscle cells. How are Na+/K+ pumps involved in this process? Sketch a Na+/K+ pump indicating conformational changes and energy usage steps and identify ions that are moved during the cyclic process.
4. Generally, after neurotransmitters are released in the neuromuscular junction, many of the neurotransmitters or some of their components are recycled by a reuptake mechanism inherent in the pre-synaptic neuron. Considering that the reuptake mechanism is often a sodium-dependent process that utilizes membrane potential, what type of membrane transport might you expect to be in play here?

A human is a complex organism that develops from a zygote. Briefly explain some of the the steps in this development

A human is a complex organism that develops from a zygote. Briefly

explain some of the the steps in this development process in the form of a
paragraph. In your answer, be sure to: 1) explain how a zygote formed, 2)
compare the genetic content of the zygote to the body cells of the
parents, 3) identify the structure in which embryonic/fetal development
usually occurs within, and 4) identify the structure that forms, which
provides nourishment and waste removal to/from the developing baby.

Which of the following is an example of how climate change has led to loss of biodiversity? Select one: A Lizard species

Which of the following is an example of how climate change has led to loss of biodiversity?

Select one:
A Lizard species are moving to higher elevations to seek cooler temperatures.
B Rising temperatures allow Arctic mosquitos to grow faster and emerge earlier.
C Populations of octopus, squid, and other cephalopods are increasing due to their adaptability to warmer ocean temperatures.
D Rising sea temperatures have led to a decline in phytoplankton populations.